The nature of heat and heat transfer is an important aspect of physics. There are entire classes and fields dedicated to thermal studies and thermal reactions. 

Definition
Thermal conductivity can be explained as the amount of heat that is transferred over a certain amount of time due to a temperature change.

Intensive Property
This is an intensive, or bulk, property, meaning that the thermal conductivity of a material stays the same no matter the size or amount of the material.

Levels
All materials have some level of thermal conductivity. Air and similar gases typically have low levels, while electrical insulators, like diamond, have high levels.

Measurement
Thermal conductivity is measured using a number of different techniques. Transient techniques measure temperature as a material is heating up, while steady-state measurement is used when temperature is not fluctuating.

Industries
A number of different industries, like building insulation in construction, rely on knowing the thermal conductivity of materials.

Source: www.eHow.com

By Mark Orwell, eHow Contributor

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